Signal-dependent modulation of cardiac genes and hypertrophy by class II HDACs. MEF2 recruits class II HDACs to target genes, which results in transcriptional repression due to chromatin condensation. Stimulation of cardiomyocytes with neurohumoral agonists acting through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activates kinase pathways that culminate with the phosphorylation of class II HDACs and their export to the cytoplasm as a complex with 14-3-3 proteins. The nuclear export protein CRM1 is required for HDAC nuclear export. The release of class II HDACs from MEF2 allows for the association of HATs with MEF2 and consequentially chromatin relaxation and transcriptional activation of fetal cardiac genes.