Cardiovascular effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids

Diesel engines are a major source of fine-particle pollution. The elderly and people with emphysema, asthma, and chronic heart and lung disease are especially sensitive to fine-particle pollution. Numerous studies have linked elevated particle levels in the air to increased hospital admissions, emergency room visits, asthma attacks and premature deaths among those suffering from respiratory problems. Because children's lungs and respiratory systems are still developing, they are also more susceptible than healthy adults to fine particles. Exposure to fine particles is associated with increased frequency of childhood illnesses and can also reduce lung function in children.

In long-term, hearts ability and effectiveness in its work increases, so its rate becomes slower, because heart is stronger and doesn’t require so much effort to provide same blood supply than it was without exercising. Also improved and more balanced blood circulation, wider capillaries and stronger blood vessels. Also increased number of red blood cells in order to keep muscles and other systems supplied with oxygen during heavy exercise. Stroke volume increases – it’s the amount of blood pumped per one time pump, because of exercise heart muscles also get bigger and stronger by that increases capacity of pumping blood.

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  • Citation tools Download this article to citation manager Ma Chenhan , Avenell Alison , Bolland Mark , Hudson Jemma , Stewart Fiona , Robertson Clare et al. Effects of weight loss interventions for adults who are obese on mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis BMJ 2017; 359 :j4849
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    Cardiovascular effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids

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